In 2001, Eric Paul Roorda wrote a thorough article entitled "McCarthyite in Camelot: The “Loss” of Cuba, Homophobia, and the Otto Otepka Scandal in the Kennedy State Department ". In it, the author complains about the unfair "witch hunt" suffered by hundreds of State Department officials on suspicion of homosexuality and/or of being Communists (1)
The article focuses on the confrontation of President John F. Kennedy and Secretary of State Dean Rusk to the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee or SISS.
In 1951, the SISS began investigating the administration of laws relating to the internal security of the U.S. and the subversive activities against it. Its creation was a direct result of the so-called McCarthyism.
Currently, McCarthyism is regarded as an irrational "witch hunt", mostly motivated by disloyalty, subversion or treason allegations based on prejudice or malice rather than evidence.
In fact, in the early 50's, many professionals, intellectuals, educators, artists and officials, among others, were innocent victims of persecution and repression engendered by prejudice, intrigue, paranoia and even vendettas in the midst of the anticommunist hysteria generated by the "Red Scare" during the Cold War.
But what is less emphasized is that the investigations stirred by McCarthyism led to the discovery of several spy networks in the depths of the U.S. government.
McCarthyism was a logical result of the intensification of the Cold War with the Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe, the first nuclear test of the USSR, the Communist revolution in China in 1949 and the Korean War.
The real problem laid in the fact that in one way or another all member organizations of the COMINTERN (the Communist Third International) were actually USSR instruments of espionage and subversion (2).
During the lengthy administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR), there had been a blunt approach of the U.S. government to the USSR and the Chinese Communists of Mao Zedong under the excuse of being allies in the war against the Axis powers, i.e., Germany, Italy and Japan (3).
The American government's approach to the international Communism gave carte blanche to people from left affiliation and even to Communist party members to penetrate into American government agencies, the media, academic grounds, etc... (4)
In 1950, Senator Joseph McCarthy gained the attention of the public about the dangerous influence of communists in the State Department, which negatively impacted U.S. foreign policy.
One of the most powerful arguments of McCarthy was the "loss" of China.
For McCarthy, the "loss" of China was mainly caused by the refusal of the State Department to continue helping the Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek, causing its fall and the rise of the Communists led by Mao Zedong in Beijing (5).
In December 1950, in the heat of the complaints on the "loss" of China against the Department of State, the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee or SISS is created. It will be lately quite infamously known through movies and documentaries made in Hollywood, which never forgive harassment that many filmmakers suffered.
However, the SISS focused their research in government agencies and the State Department specifically.
A decade after its creation, in 1960, the SISS renewed its attacks on the State Department this time on the grounds of the "loss" of Cuba (1).
The Senate subcommittee had received allegations about the involvement of Department of State officials in the fall of the government of Fulgencio Batista and Fidel Castro's rise to power in Cuba.
The spearhead of this alleged conspiracy was William Arthur Wieland, the then director of the Office of Mexican and Caribbean Affairs from the Bureau of Latin American Affairs.
Wieland, among other things, was accused of being the main cause of the fall of Batista’s government, the rise of Fidel Castro, in addition to being a communist and also homosexual.
Roorda considers that the Wieland case was the result of blind prejudice and homophobia of McCarthyism.
In 1962, reports from the SISS research on "the loss of Cuba" and the case Wieland were leaked to the press and a media storm descended over the government of John F. Kennedy right in the midst of the Missile Crisis (6).
It is true that McCarthyism generated too many injustices and exacerbated the traditional homophobia.
However, if we look closely at the facts surrounding Wieland’s case, we see that it goes far beyond McCarthyism, witch-hunting, anti-communist hysteria, homophobia, the Antichrist, and even the person of William Wieland.
On August 27, 1960, in Washington, a new round of meetings of the SISS began. (7)
The SISS focused this time, among other issues, in the failures of the process of security clearance in order to work in federal institutions. (8)
The trickiest case for the Senate subcommittee was the one of William Arthur Wieland, who had been nominated for a consular office in Germany without the appropriate security clearances.
Worst of all was that in the course of the investigation it was discovered that Wieland had worked for nearly 20 years, had been promoted several times and had reached influential positions in the State Department without the most basic security clearances and qualifications.
Subsequent investigations on the failures of security clearance in Wieland’s case brought to the fore the problem of the "loss" of Cuba, as well as suspicions about his possible Communist affiliation and even about his "deviant" sexuality.
Actually, nobody in the State Department or in any government agency could say for sure who actually William Wieland was and what his exact origins were. From start, he will claim that he never had a birth certificate because of a "clerical error" at birth, excuse suitable for natural-born conspirators like him. (9)
At various stages of his life, William Wieland had appeared in different circumstances and places with different names. For example, although he claims to have been named William Richard Wieland at birth, he used the name of William Arthur Wieland since he enters the State Department. In his youth, he was called Arturo Montenegro, Guillermo Montenegro and William Montenegro as well. (9)
Most of the information on Wieland's life before joining the State Department is based solely on his statements that no one has ever even tried to verify.
In the absence of a valid certificate of birth, you can only rely on Wieland's own testimony, who says he was born in New York in 1907. (9)
According to his own legend, Wieland's biological father died in 1911, when he was only four years old. After four years of mourning, his mother married a Venezuelan American named Guillermo Arturo Montenegro, from which the young William took his Spanish alias.
In the decade of 1920s, the Montenegro Wieland family moved to Havana. (9)
According to Wieland, his education elapsed between Havana and the U.S. under a questionable birth certificate on which he was named as William Montenegro (10).
In 1927, Wieland enlisted in the U.S. Cavalry and to this end he submitted a fake birth certificate in order to hide his age as he claimed. Nothing is known about his brief military career, which ended in 1928. (11)
After the death of his mother in 1930, Wieland reappears in Havana and, in his own words:
I worked for a year with the General Electric Co. there. And then I worked for a year with the Cuban Electric Co. in Havana. Then I taught Spanish and English to Americans and Cubans' … until I joined the Havana Post in late 1932. …I had only the 1 year of college (Villanueva). …I believe she (Mrs. Clara Pessino) became both owner and publisher (of the Havana Post). (12)
But as in almost all his accounts, everything about Wieland will be confusing and indefinite.
In the records of the “Communist Threat to The United States Through the Caribbean Hearings”, which investigated the participation of U.S. State Department officials in the installation of Fidel Castro in power can be read statements like the following:
It would not appear improper to classify Wieland's description of his Cuban career as "confused", perhaps, even "murky". Beginning in 1932 he was in "journalism", but this is all that can be said. In 1933 or 1934 the employees of the paper for which he has working took it over in an incident which would certainly stand out in an employee's memory. Wieland could "not remember" that incident. But his position as "journalist" he used to explain -whether truthfully otherwise- any contacts which could not be otherwise explained or denied.For example, Mario Garcia testified that Wieland was fellow member of the ABC, a Cuban revolutionary organization. He also denied that he was the liaison officer between Sumner Welles and the ABC. He did admit to knowing the ABC leader, Martinez Saenz, but just as a journalist covering the ABC. All of which is inconclusive. It is however, germane to point out that, when asked his opinion under oath as to Wieland's testimony, State Department security officer Otto Otepka replied: I think he lied, yes, sir."The Otepka investigation of Wieland was clearly forced on State Department by an individual of considerable influence who, as Otepka testified, made "...a specific allegation... that he had information that Mr. Wieland was a Communist who has been known..." as Guillermo o Arturo Montenegro. (13)
There were even those who accused Wieland of being a Stalinist agent trained by "Fabio" Grobart, Cuban-Polish-Jew Communist leader. However, like everything related to Wieland-Montenegro, there isn’t any clear documentation on the case.
In fact, during the SISS interrogations, Wieland not only denied that he was acquainted with Fabio Grobart but that he had ever heard of him. The problem was that Grobart was one of the best known Soviet’s intelligence agents by the U.S. State Department since the 1930's, in addition to be one of the most prominent Communist leaders in Cuba, so Wieland as director of the Bureau of the Mexican and Caribbean Affairs should have inside information on him. (14)
Apparently, the first known link of Wieland with the State Department and possibly with the Council on Foreign Relations or CFR was Benjamin Sumner Welles.
Sumner Welles is one of the most important and controversial figures in American politics. In fact, he is considered the main international strategist under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, having much of the responsibility for the design of the postwar world. (15)
Sumner Welles was a descendant of one of the most conspicuous families within the American establishment and was related to the Roosevelts.
Welles entered the diplomatic service during the First World War, quickly becoming a specialist in Latin American affairs.
Outside the Department of State Sumner Welles was part of the founding group of the Council on Foreign Relations in 1921, being one of its most distinguished members until his death en1961. (16)
As we have said in other articles of this series published in this blog, the CFR is the most important "think tank" of the U.S. and possibly the world: it gathers the group of the 4,000 most influential people of the political, financial, academic and intellectual fields in the U.S. The CFR mission has been to basically design-sometimes indirectly and others directly-, the American government's foreign policy (and thus internal). (17)
It could be said that Welles was one of the most conspicuous members of the CFR, participating in the creation of the League of Nations after the First World War, the United Nations after the second, besides being one of the designers of political map after the Second World War. (18)
In 1921, Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes appointed Welles as head of the Division of Latin American affairs. In 1924, President Coolidge sent him to Honduras as a mediator between parties that were fighting over the government. (18)
As soon as Franklin Delano Roosevelt assumed the presidency in 1933, he assigned Welles as assistant secretary for Latin American affairs. (18)
Roosevelt never could appoint Welles as Secretary of State because of the tremendous political influence of the acting secretary, Cordell Hull. However, the president regarded Welles as his main foreign policy adviser, giving him a prominence that secretary Hull resented. In this way, Hull became a sworn enemy to Welles and, finally, he has a keen involvement in Welles downfall.
At Roosevelt opening in the Oval Office, the Cuban issue became one of the most pressing concerns of his foreign policy.
The pretensions of the Cuban President Gerardo Machado of holding fraudulently the government and the devastating impact of the 1929 Great Depression on the Island, which bust the great achievements of Machado’s first government, led to a social crisis that plunged the country into anarchy.
In Washington, the intense lobbyism of Don Fernando Ortiz had called the attention of the American government on the Cuban situation. Roosevelt decided to send Welles as his special envoy given his previous mediating experience in Honduras and his knowledge of the region, in addition to his fluent Spanish.
Welles’ diplomatic demarche in Cuba was short lived but its blast will have long lasting impact until the very present moment.
It is true that Welles is the author of the repealing of the Platt Amendment to the Cuban constitution that "legitimate" the American prerogative to intervene militarily in Cuba. (19) However, the management of Welles laid the foundation for everything that happened on the island from 1933 until the present moment.
Welles arrived in Cuba on May 8, 1933 and initially promised the U.S. support to Machado. However, Welles literally acted as a governor controller, bypassing the presidential authority, which will cause a strong reaction from the Cuban president. Finally, both men will be unable to reach an agreement and, as the rope brakes by its weakest part, Welles forced Machado’s departure in June 1931. (20)
Welles tried to fill the power vacuum with the brief presidency of Carlos Manuel de Cespedes. However, this will be ousted just two months after his swearing by the "revolt of the sergeants" orchestrated by Welles himself.
According to the words of the poet Lorenzo Garcia Vega, the "revolt of the sergeants" allowed the entrance of the "mob" to the government and the Cuban army, inaugurating an era of superlative corruption at all levels of the political superstructure, dominated by violence and political gangsters. This process prepared the advent of Fidel Castro, the supreme product of political violence and corruption (21).
Welles gave Batista (the "cute mulatto" which, according to gossips, was irresistible to Roosevelt's envoy) (22) the role of "strong man" of Cuban politics during the next quarter century, which led ultimately to the rise of Fidel Castro.
Welles also will provide access to the Department of State to William Wieland, the spearhead of the plot that will allow Castro to take absolute power in Cuba.
No one really knows how Sumner Welles got to know the murky and ambiguous reporter Guillermo Montenegro Wieland. But there are dark rumors about the rapport between these two men.
Needless to say, still in the 60's, and three more decades later, in general, given the prevailing Puritanism, there was a widespread prejudice that any government official with "sexual deviations" could be subject to blackmail or seduction by enemy agents, representing therefore a high security "risk".
Although, in fairness, we must recognize that all human beings are weak and heterosexuals are so prone to blackmail or sexual seduction as homosexuals or perhaps more, as history shows.
Now, among the preferred defamations to start an intrigue against any political enemy or rival there is the accusation of communist and/or homosexual. Especially since the early 50's, there is a widespread prejudice about the sine qua non relationship between the two "conditions".
Wieland, accused of "security risk", was therefore an object of suspicion on both his ideological and sexual tendencies. For that reason, great deal of the Senate subcommittee investigations focused on the personal live of Wieland.
The SISS had received testimony that Wieland was the “fair-haired boy” of Sumner Welles in Havana, who would have helped him to get his job in the Associated Press and have been instrumental in his entrance into the State Department in 1941.
J.G. Sourwine, chief adviser to the SISS for many years, endeavored to ascertain the nature of the relations between Wieland and the ex sub-secretary of State Sumner Welles, whose homosexuality had forced him to resign in 1943:
Wieland denied from start to finish to be Welles’ "fair-haired boy" .
Mr. Sourwine: Did you have any knowledge of anyone referring to you as Sumner Welles' fair haired boy in Havana?Mr. Wieland: No, sir.Mr. Sourwine: It has been testified that you were known... As a Government administrator, are you aware that sexual deviation, and especially homosexuality among employees, presents a very special security problem?Mr. Wieland: Yes, sir...Mr. Sourwine: Have you ever had deal with this problem in any way?Mr. Wieland: No, sir. (23)
Dominant homophobia aside, it was quite confusing that Wieland’s story on the frequency of his contacts with Welles changed significantly between the beginning and the end of his testimony.
In his first appearance before SISS, Wieland testified that he had been only "one or two" dinners in which Welles was present and that he interviewed him "once or twice." This story changed substantially when he returned to the Subcommittee. In fact, it radically changed between the beginning and end of the second day of testimony:
Senator Dodd: ... My recollection is that you said you interviewed him (Welles) once or twice with other newsmen. Do you remember that?Mr. Wieland: No, sir. I believe I said that I saw him from time to time in his office. It might have been a couple of times a week actually...Senator Dodd; I should tell you that there are people who say you saw him all the time, and you were a close friend; that you boasted about your friendship....Senator Dodd: ...they have said that you knew him well... and everybody in Havana who knew Welles was very aware of it at the time.Mr. Wieland: Sir, I did talk with Mr. Welles, on, as I said, a number of occasions as a newspaperman. He always was very friendly and considerate...Senator Dodd: I understood you (to say)... that you had no more a casual acquaintanceship... my impression from the statements made to me under oath by others who were in Havana at the time, gives me the impression that indeed you knew him very well and that was no secret...Mr. Wieland: There was no secret, no sir, that was quite true... (24)
In October 1933, having "stabilized" the situation on the Island, Sumner Welles returned to Washington.
According to some sources, Welles not only bequeathed the U.S. embassy in Cuba to Jefferson Caffery, who had hitherto served as U.S. Deputy Secretary of State. Welles also gave up to Caffery his "fair-haired boy” William Arthur Wieland Montenegro. (1)
Caffery was chased by the "curse" of Welles and, during his stay in Havana, was repeatedly accused of "sexual perversion". (1)
According to some sources, Caffery surrender to the apparently irresistible charms of Wieland and sustain an intense romance throughout his term as ambassador to Cuba, turning the U.S. embassy into the center of scandal at the Havana downtown of those days. (25)
In 1937, Caffery ended his mission in Cuba and returned to Washington. However, it appears that Wieland did not lose his "fair-haired boy" status.
A few months after Caffery’s departure, Wieland is expelled from the Havana Post by plagiarizing stories from the Associated Press. (26)
Sumner Welles, now exalted as U.S. Undersecretary of State and leading figure in U.S. foreign policy, brought his "fair-haired boy" as a souvenir from Havana back to Washington. (25)
Moving influences, Welles put Wieland –now only William- very close to him, as a reporter covering the State Department. Wieland began to work nothing less than at the Associated Press, which didn’t show the slightest resentment for the plagiarist past of its new acquisition. (26)
However, the star of Sumner Wells will be beset by a series of scandals that shook Washington.
Welles’ strong influence on the State Department caused the split of its officials into two factions: the Secretary of State Cordell Hull loyals and those sympathetic to the sub-Secretary Welles. Hull, though Welles’ comrade in the Council on Foreign Relations, always saw him as a political enemy
Welles was also responsible for the State Department flooding by the CFR and its strong influence in US foreign policy. This think tank began to be heavily funded primarily by the Rockefeller Foundation, and, from now on, became the center from which the U.S. foreign policy was designed. (17)
Under Welles, too, if we believe the attacks against him, entered a faction of leftist gays that promoted the rapprochement with the USSR and the Communists in general.
Allegedly, in 1940, returning from the funeral of William Bankhead, the Speaker of the House, Sumner Welles, under the influence of alcohol and barbiturates, sexually harassed several African-American waiters at the train where he traveled.
The Secretary of State Cordell Hull, either by puritanical indignation, revenge, or as part of the plot, dispatched Ambassador William Christian Bullitt, Jr., FDR's trusted person but a bitter enemy of Welles (27) to inform the President about the "facts" of the train “situation”. But Roosevelt rejected Bullitt allegations, dismissing him from office.
However, Bullitt would not relent in his efforts and, personally, began a campaign of intrigue, which harassed the political figure of Welles the rest of his life. (28)
Others say that Welles could not restrain his unbecoming behavior-indeed, the rest of his life he was involved in several scandals of the same cut-though Roosevelt himself had assigned bodyguards and FBI agents to control him. (29)
Still, Welles participated during 1942 in the Advisory Committee on Postwar Foreign Policy of the Department of State, who will take care of drawing the map of the world that would emerge after the war ended. (30)
Amid the political and media storm that pursued him, in 1941, it seems that Sumner Welles achieved entering his protégé William Wieland in the Foreign Service bypassing all established procedures and even without knowing well the background thereof.
However, the report of the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee or SISS stresses that "it is interesting that Mr. Wieland had sworn two days before completing the application form for employment in the State Department."
Wieland was proposed for a job at the American Embassy in Brazil for his knowledge of Portuguese, but he lacked any qualification for the office
Wieland just sworn without filling any job application or passing neither the necessary examination nor even a background check. Two days later, he filled the form and left hurriedly to cover his new post. (31)
"For unexplained reasons, the application and entrance of Mr. Wieland into the State Department were marked by unusual haste, as if some individual or individuals were extremely anxious to secure for him an almost 100-percent advance in salary. . This haste was such that ordinary checkup precautions were ignored. On his application form filled out on June 4, 1941, there was no provision for entering his former name, William Arthur Montenegro, which name he adopted upon the remarriage of his mother after his father's death." (26)
Another thing that caught the attention of the Senate subcommittee was that the admission application’s form from the State Department that Wieland filled had the strange marking specifying that "no birth certificate is necessary." (32)
Wieland had never been able to submit a valid birth certificate, appearing at different times and places with different names and aliases.
With unusual urgency, Wieland was sent as a press attaché to the American embassy in Brazil without the minimum qualifications and a disproportionate salary, which scandalized his colleagues (33).
The report on the Internal Security of the Department of State mentioned the case of Wieland as the most outstanding in terms of violation of the admission procedures:
(Wieland) .. was appointed without any security check.(His appointment actually was effective before he even filled out any form of an application.) He falsified his job application by omission. When he later filled out an expanded personal history form, he falsified that by direct misstatement.(34)
Coincidentally, Wieland joined the Department of Latin America under the direction of Lawrence Duggan, a member as Welles of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), who later was charged of being a Soviet KGB agent (Duggan, coincidentally, "fell" from a window of a Manhattan hotel the day he was to appear to testify before a Senate investigating committee in 1948). (35)
The SISS found that "as notorious protégé of Sumner Welles, Wieland ‘won’ four promotions in nine months." (36)
Apparently, Welles had great haste to get his "fair-hairy boy" in a safe place. The attacks on his person -homophobia aside, caused largely by his unbecoming conduct, - had compromised greatly his position in the State Department and the government of President Roosevelt. This was finally compelled to accept the resignation of his chief political adviser in 1943. However, Welles, within the CFR, will remain one of the leading strategists of U.S. foreign policy until his death.
At Welles's resignation, Wieland was safe in the American Embassy in Rio de Janeiro. However, at this point, he met one of his bitterest enemies: the ambassador William Douglas Pawley.
Pawley was a pioneer of aviation in Cuba and China (founder of the Flying Tigers), global entrepreneur, diplomat in Peru and Brazil, an adviser to Presidents Roosevelt, Truman, Eisenhower and Nixon. He was one of the architects of U.S. covert policy, being involved in coups d’état against the governments of Guatemala and Cuba. He also was undercover CIA agent, organizer of the Cuban exiles for the Bay of Pigs invasion, a critic of President Kennedy, and friend of Clare Boothe Luce, the CIA director Allen Dulles, FBI director J. Edgar Hoover, Secretary of State George C. Marshall, Senator James Eastland and several foreign dictators. Pawley was one of the most prominent names in the list of witnesses to the Senate hearings on the assassination of President Kennedy when, according to the official version, he committed suicide. (37)
Afterward, during the SISS hearings between 1960 and 62, William Pawley will be one of the main accusers of Wieland in the case of the "loss of Cuba," playing the same role he had played ten years ago during investigations into the "loss of China. "
William Pawley informed Eisenhower and the State Department about Wieland’s leftist activities. But his warnings were ignored.
Pawley himself wrote:
The Press Attaché at our embassy was William A. Wieland, and after I had been in Rio for a few months, I came to be more and more of the opinion that Wieland was not carrying out his duties in a way which I felt to be appropriate and in the best interests of the United States. After trying to secure corrective measures and failing, I asked for his transfer. (38)
To Pawley’s surprise, Wieland was unexpectedly promoted and sent to Bogota in 1948, being recognized as one of the State Department untouchables. (38)
Shortly after beginning his diplomatic job in Bogota, the fate of William Wieland "coincided" with Fidel Castro's.
In April 1948 Castro started his long career as international agent provocateur. Then, he was involved in the assassination of the Colombian popular leader Eliezer Gaitan and cooperated actively in the instigation of the "bogotazo", one of the most important events in Colombian history. And in it, William Richard Arthur Wieland Montenegro played one of his darkest roles.
(To be continued)
PHOTO: William Arthur Wieland and Benjamin Sumner Welles .
1. Eric Paul Roorda, McCarthyite in Camelot: The “Loss” of Cuba, Homophobia, and the Otto Otepka Scandal in the Kennedy State Department (pages 723–754) en Diplomatic History © The Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations (SHAFR).September 2001 Volume 31, Issue 4 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/diph.2007.31.issue-4/issuetoc
2. Leer John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr, and Alexander Vassiliev; Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America, Yale University Press: New Haven, CT, 2009, ISBN 978-0-300-16438-1, 548,
3 FDR and the Soviet Union; The President’s Battles over Foreign Policy by Mary E. Glantz, February 2005 Modern War Studies Cloth ISBN 978-0-7006-1365-6,
4 http://spectator.org/archives/2002/02/11/the-demolition-of-franklin-roo y http://whatreallyhappened.com/WRHARTICLES/pearl/www.geocities.com/Pentagon/6315/fdr.html
5 The Institute of Pacific Relations and the Betrayal of China in http://www.dcdave.com/article5/120207.htm
6 John F. Kennedy: The President's News Conference http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=9460#ixzz1qQdUBqOf
7 In STATE DEPARTMENT SECURITY, THE CASE OF WILLIAM WIELAND, page 99 http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?view=plaintext;size=100;id=uc1.%24b643336;page=root;seq=5;num
8. In STATE DEPARTMENT SECURITY, THE CASE OF WILLIAM WIELAND, page 99 http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?view=plaintext;size=100;id=uc1.%24b643336;page=root;seq=5;num
9. In Milestones in William Arthur Wieland's Life. in http://www.miamiherald.com/2009/01/02/834781/milestones-in-william-arthur-wielands.html
10. Latin American Political Yearbook, Volume 5 By Robert G. Breene, Jr., Robert G. Breene page 213 http://books.google.com/books?id=67EoU5ImPqgC&dq=%22William+Arthur+Wieland%22&q=Wieland#v=snippet&q=Wieland&f=false
11. Latin American Political Yearbook, Volume 5 By Robert G. Breene, Jr., Robert G. Breene page 214 http://books.google.com/books?id=67EoU5ImPqgC&dq=%22William+Arthur+Wieland%22&q=Wieland#v=snippet&q=Wieland&f=false
12. In STATE DEPARTMENT SECURITY, THE CASE OF WILLIAM WIELAND, page 99 http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?view=plaintext;size=100;id=uc1.%24b643336;page=root;seq=5;num
13. Latin American political yearbook, Volume 5 By Robert G. Breene, Jr., Robert G. Breene. Latin American News Syndicate, 2004. page 215
14. In STATE DEPARTMENT SECURITY, THE CASE OF WILLIAM WIELAND, page 102 http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?view=plaintext;size=100;id=uc1.%24b643336;page=root;seq=5;num
15 Secret Affairs: Franklin Roosevelt, Cordell Hull, and Sumner Welles by Professor Irwin Gellman Johns Hopkins University Press, Mar 1, 1995 page 341 and following
17. See in this blog Archive THE CUBAN CONSPIRACY (EIGHT) THE COUNCIL ON FOREIG RELATIONS In http://havanaschooleng.blogspot.com/2011/09/cuban-conspiracy-eight-council-on.html
18. Sumner Welles, Postwar Planning, and the Quest for a New World Order, 1937-1943 By Christopher D. O'Sullivan http://www.gutenberg-e.org/osc01/index.html
19. Sumner Welles in Cuba, St. Petersburg Times, March 22, 4http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=888&dat=19350322&id=_jhPAAAAIBAJ&sjid=BU4DAAAAIBAJ&pg=4443,4233079
21. In ¿Qué hacía el Arzobispo de La Habana leyendo 'Paradiso'? http://www.diariodecuba.com/cultura/11669-que-hacia-el-arzobispo-de-la-habana-leyendo-paradiso
23. That Infernal Little Cuban Republic: The United States and the Cuban Revolution By Lars Schoultz http://books.google.com/books?id=37LopzbPotYC&pg=PA133&lpg=PA133&dq=Sumner+Welles'+fair+haired+boy+Wieland&source=bl&ots=vrFAtRDEJz&sig=l3tW4iNw81V8WYF8wUUvJ-16QUU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=7kb8T6fxOqbp6wGa7aTNBg&sqi=2&ved=0CEoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Sumner%20Welles'%20fair%20haired%20boy%20Wieland&f=false
24. Latin American Political Yearbook, Volume 5 By Robert G. Breene, Jr., Robert G. Breene, Page 216 http://books.google.com/books?id=67EoU5ImPqgC&pg=PA215&lpg=PA215&dq=Sumner+Welles'+fair+haired+boy&source=bl&ots=K8BQ1phvOf&sig=k1G7KN3q_q4W24nB6jz551dm7_U&hl=en&sa=X&ei=aUD8T4LeOqO36wGX1fjYBg&sqi=2&ved=0CEQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Sumner%20Welles'%20fair%20haired%20boy&f=false
25. Criminal Action Against a Once Friendly People and Nation by Oswaldo F. Hernandez http://www.amigospais-guaracabuya.org/oagoh001.php
26. In STATE DEPARTMENT SECURITY, THE CASE OF WILLIAM WIELAND, page 99 http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?view=plaintext;size=100;id=uc1.%24b643336;page=root;seq=5;num
30The Invisible Government by Dan Smoot, P. 8 http://www.munseys.com/diskfive/ingo.pdf
31. In STATE DEPARTMENT SECURITY, THE CASE OF WILLIAM WIELAND, page 98 http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?view=plaintext;size=100;id=uc1.%24b643336;page=root;seq=5;num=i
32. In STATE DEPARTMENT SECURITY, THE CASE OF WILLIAM WIELAND, pages 98-99 http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?view=plaintext;size=100;id=uc1.%24b643336;page=root;seq=5;num=i
33. State Department Security: The Case of William Wieland", 1962, page IV http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.%24b643336;page=root;view=plaintext;size=100;seq=5;num=i
34. State Department Security: The Case of William Wieland", 1962 http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.%24b643336;page=root;view=plaintext;size=100;seq=5;num=i
35. Traitors and Treason By Robert W. Pelton. Ed Infinity publishing.com, PA. 2003. Page 195 http://books.google.com/books?id=AM73_etFKn0C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
36. STATE DEPARTMENT SECURITY page 100 http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?view=plaintext;size=100;id=uc1.%24b643336;page=root;seq=5;num=i
37 MORE RUTHLESS THAN THE ENEMY: The Dark Diplomacy of Ambassador William Douglas Pawley by David Price http://williampawley.blogspot.com/2009/12/chapter-1-sunset_12.html
38 Why the Communists are Winning as of 1976...and how they lost in 1990 by William D. Pawley & Richard R. Tryon en http://www.gratisbooks.com/pchapdet.php?chapter_id=32920